(1879-1919), Mexican revolutionary leader and agrarian reformer, born in San Miguel Anenecuilco (now Anenecuilco
de los Zapata), in Morelos State. An illiterate tenant farmer of almost pure Native American blood, he recruited an army of
Native Americans from villages and haciendas in Morelos and, under the rallying cry “Land and Liberty,” joined
the Mexican revolutionist Francisco Indalécio Madero in the 1910 revolt against the Mexican soldier-statesman Porfirio Díaz.
Having lost faith in Madero, who assumed the presidency in 1911, Zapata formulated his agrarian reform plan; known as the
Plan of Ayala, it called for the land to be redistributed among the Native Americans. During the provisional presidencies
of the Mexican soldier-politician Victoriano Huerta and, later, the Mexican statesman Venustiano Carranza, Zapata continued
his resistance to the government. By this time Zapata had extended his power throughout southern Mexico. With the Mexican
revolutionary general Francisco Villa, Zapata marched on Mexico City, entering it the first of three times in 1914. The following
year Zapata withdrew to Morelos where, still resisting, he later was murdered by an agent of Carranza.